World Values Survey (Denmark): Cross-Sectional Study 1981-1999

Principal Investigator

Lise Togeby, Institut for Statskundskab, Aarhus Universitet
Inger Koch-Nielsen, Det Nationale Center for Socialforskning (NCS),
Peter Gundelach, Sociologisk Institut, Københavns Universitet
Svend Kreiner, Biostatistisk afdeling, Institut for Folkesundhedsvidenskab
Peter B. Andersen, Institut for Tværkulturelle og Regionale Studier, Københavns Universitet
Jens Tonboe, Institut for Sociale Forhold, Aalborg Universitet


Codebook: Variables, universes, concepts, survey design and frequency distribution



See abstract


This project is the Danish part of an international comparative questionnaire survey, The European Values Survey, which has been carried out in a large number of countries in and outside Europe since 1980. The questionnaires are identical in all the participating countries. # The purpose of the project is to make multidimensional measurements of the values of the population in a large number of countries all over the world. This is the fourth wave of interview The first wave was carried out in 26 countries (including Denmark) in the beginning of the 1980s (DDA-0829), the second wave in approx. 40 countries in 1990 (DDA-1523), and the third wave in approx. 45 countries in 1995 (Denmark did not participate in this wave). This fourth wave was carried out in 1999. # This means that the result of the project is a unique and extraordinarily large data material as immediately comparable data will be available from a large number of countries at different points in time. #The 1999-survey in Denmark uses the same questionnaire as in all the other participating countries. There are, however, two changes compared with the international project: a particular possibility of including panel data, and the inclusion of qualitative data which may supplement the analysis of the survey questions. # #Panel data: In all the countries the survey was carried out as a cross-sectional survey. In connection with the 1990-survey, the Danish National Institute of Social Research based the sampling and the interviewing on personal code numbers. Upon permission granted by the Danish Data Surveillance Authority it was possible to re-interview the persons in 1999. This panel design has only been possible in Denmark. Whereas the other countries can only map out changes of values in cohorts, it is possible in Denmark to examine individual changes of values. The panel design means that it is far more reliable to make causality analyses. The unique Danish design will therefore give Danish researchers much better analysis possibilities than researchers in any of the other participating countries. The panel design means more certain knowledge and will thereby strengthen the analyses of the values surveys. The panel design does, however, result in certain difficulties as regards comparisons with other countries as this design means that the measurements in 1990 and in 1999 are not independent. This causes difficulties compared with the other countries which all use the cross-sectional design. These difficulties appear for instance in the form of it being necessary to use different statistical tests in panel surveys and in cross-sectional surveys, respectively. This means that it is necessary to have both a panel part and a cross-sectional part. The panel part because it will give better possiblities for analyses, the cross-sectional part for the sake of international comparisons. This means that the total number of interviews has to be increased as compared to a cross-sectional survey. In other words, the problems arising may be solved by using the two different designs. (See DDA-9990: World Values Survey (Denmark): Cross-Sectional Study 1981-1999, and DDA-9991: World Values Survey (Denmark): Panel Study 1990-1999). # #The values surveys comprise a wide range of values, in particular values in relation to religion, work, politics, family, and moral values in general. It is therefore possible to put forward hypotheses within the separate areas as well as for the total pattern of values. # #The question of values may be divided into two main questions: #1. The nature and development of the values in the separate # sectors, corresponding to social institutions. In this # connection the studies of changes of values should be attached # to the development of the relevant social institutions. #2. Differences regarding values and the development of values in # various parts of the population. In both cases the questions # may be examined within Denmark or through comparisons with # other countries


Abortion, Working conditions, Work instruction, Bribe, Occupation (settlement), Boycott, Prayer, Children, The bringing up of children, Daily press, Demonstration, Animal protection group, Labour union, Member of an association, Parental role, God, Health, Homosexuality, Church attendance, Ecclesiastical organisations, Women's role, Equality, Substance of life, View of life, Quality of life, Local affiliation, Happiness, Lie, Male role, Member of the national church, Trust in your fellow citizens, Human Rights movement, Environmental movement, National identity, Party membership, Party preferences, Politics, Political position, Post material value, Religion, Religious movement, Religious ceremony, Societal goals, Suicide, Tax evasion, Divorce, Educational system, Social equality, Social work, Benefit fraud, Drug abuse, Strike action, Trust in public institutions, Existence, Faithfulness, Petition, Juvenile work, Infidelity, Well-being, Friends, Marriage, Ecological movement


Society and culture: Social behaviour and attitudes, Society and culture: Social conditions and indicators, Society and culture: Religion and values, Social stratification and groupings: Family life and marriage (including household composition and generations), Politics: Mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion, Labour and employment: Employment, Politics: International politics and organisations


Age limits,

Geographic Coverage

National, DK

Data set

Order data

Variables: 185
Analysis unit: Individuals, 1990 and 1999: Persons aged 18 or more. The universe in 1981 is unknown.


In data set: 3235
Original sample: NA


Kind of data: Survey data

Time dimension: Panel study, The survey is a cross section survey which contains data from DDA-0829: International Value Project. 1981, DDA-1523: International Value Project, 1990 (Denmark) and DDA-5837: World Values Survey 1999 (Denmark).

Sampling procedure: Other

Action to minimize loos: NA

Data collection

Mode of collection: Mail survey

Test type: Structured questionnaire

Number of questions: 183

Data Collector: NA

Temporal coverage

Start: 1981-01-01
End: 1999-12-31


Lise Togeby, Inger Koch-Nielsen, Peter Gundelach, Svend Kreiner, Peter B. Andersen, Jens Tonboe, Bjarne Hjorth Andersen, Ole Riis, World Values Survey (Denmark): Cross-Sectional Study 1981-1999, Dansk Data Arkiv Danish Data Archive, 2004. 1 data file: DDA-9990, version: 1.0.0, http://dx.doi.org/10.5279/DK-SA-DDA-9990

Persistent identifier:

DOI: 10.5279/DK-SA-DDA-9990

Archive information

Received: 2002-07-01


Study state: The Danish Data Archive has fully documented and preserved the data in a long-term preservation format.
Access conditions: Free access


DDI-L-3.1 XML Study metadata

Latest version: 1.0.0

Other metadata formats

DDA XML Study description


Primary publications

  • Gundelach, Peter og Riis, Ole, Værdiforandringer i Danmark 1981-1990, Aarhus, Institut for Statskundskab og Institut for Religionsstudier, Aarhus Universitet, 32 pp., 1990
  • Gundelach, Peter og Riis, Ole, Genopstår familien?, Dansk Sociologi 2 (1), pp.72-77, 1990
  • Riis, Ole, Folkekirke og folkereligiøsitet, religionssociologisk belyst, Kritisk Forum for Praktisk Teologi, nr. 39, pp. 56-75, 1990
  • Gundelach, Peter, Recent Value Changes in Western Europe. Panorama des Changements de Valeurs Recents en Europe Occidentale, Basic Dossier No. 2. Europerspectives Conference, 10-12 April. Namur, 12, 1991
  • Gundelach, Peter, Recent Value Changes in Europe, FUTURES. May 2, pp. 301-319, 1991
  • Gundelach, Peter, Danskernes intolerance, Dansk Sociologi 2 (3), pp. 4-23, 1991
  • Gundelach, Peter, The Women's Movement and Attitudes to Abortion, I Gundelach, Peter og Siune, Karen (red.): From Voters to Participants, pp. 176-193, Århus: Politica, 1991
  • Gundelach, Peter, Politiske og religiøse holdninger, I Friis, Henning (red.): Hverdag i EF, pp. 121-138, København: Spektrum, 1991
  • Gundelach, Peter og Riis, Ole, Danskernes værdier, København, Forlaget Sociologi, 283 pp., 1992
  • Gundelach, Peter, Værdiændringer i 1980'erne, Samfundsøkonomen, december 2:8,, pp. 5-11, 1992
  • Riis, Ole, Religion, I: Andersen, H. (red.): Religion - en grundbog til et fag, pp. 290-305, København: Reitzel, 1992
  • Gundelach, Peter, Man skal kunne styre sig, Vital nr. 9, april 3,, pp. 6-8, 1993
  • Gundelach, Peter, Danskernes særpræg, Dansk Sociologi, vol. 4, nr. 2,, pp. 10-13, 1993
  • Gundelach, Peter, Danskernes særpræg, Dansk Sociologi, vol. 4, nr. 2,, pp. 10-13, 1993
  • Riis, Ole, La religione nella societ  modernizzata, La religione degli Europei, 2, Torino,, pp. 3-16, 1993
  • Gundelach, Peter, National value differences: Modernization or Institutionalization, International Journal of Comparative Sociology XXXV (1-2),, pp. 37-58, 1994
  • Gundelach, Peter og Riis, Ole, El retorno al familismo?, I: Nicolas, Juan D¡ez og Inglehart (eds.): Tendencias mundiales de cambio en los valores sociales y pol¡ticos, Madrid: Funesco, pp. 619-638, 1994
  • Gundelach, Peter, Communities, grass-roots movements and substance abuse problems: new strategies, Nordic Alcohols Studies, Vol. 11,, pp. 5-12, 1994
  • Gundelach, Peter, Er protesterne og bevægelserne forsvundet?, GRUS nr. 44,, pp. 5-21, 1994
  • Gundelach, Peter, The decline in protest activity among the young, Young, vol. 3, no. 4,, pp. 36-53, 1994
  • Riis, Ole, Pattersn of Secularization, I: Pettersson, T. og Riis, Ole (eds.): Scandinavian Values, Uppsala, pp. 99-129, 1994
  • Gundelach, Peter I: van Deth, Jan W. og Scarbrough, Elinor (eds.): The Impact of Values,, Grass-Roots Activity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 412-440, 1994
  • Riis, Ole, La secolarizzatione in Scandinavia, I: I valori degli Europei e degli Italiani negli anni novanta,, pp. 405-444, 1994
  • Gundelach, Peter og Torpe, Lars, Voluntary associations. New Types of Involvement and Democracy, Paper prepared for the ECPR Workshop on "Social Involvement, voluntary associations and democratic politics", Oslo 29 March - 3 April, 3, 1996
  • Gundelach, Peter, Danskernes særpræg, Dansk Sociologi, vol. 4, nr. 2,, pp. 10-13, 1993
  • Gundelach, PeterI: Bexell, G”ran og Stenius, Henrik (red.): Värdetraditioner i nordiskt perspektiv,, Folkelige bevægelser og vor tids værdier, Lund: Lund University Press, pp. 105-124, 1996
  • Riis, Ole, Metoder og teorier i religionssociologien, Århus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 60, 1996
  • Riis, Ole, Religionen og det europæiske fællesskab, Norsk Statsvitenskapeligt tidsskrift nr. 2,, pp. 95-112, 1996
  • Riis, Ole, Religion et identité nationale au Danemarque, Paris: La Décorte, 20, 1996
  • Gundelach, Peter og Kreiner, SvendI: Halman, Loek og Nevitte, Neil (eds.): Political Value Change in Western Democracies,, Individualization or Neo-Conservatism, Tilburg: Tilburg University Press, pp. 81-102, 1997
  • Gundelach, Peter og Torpe, Lars, Social reflexivity, democracy and new types of citizen involvement in Denmark, I: van Deth, Jan W. (ed.): Private Groups and Public Lives, pp. 47-61, London: Routledge, 1997
  • Riis, Ole, Idealtyperne i Max Webers 'Die protestantische Ethik', I: Meldgaard, I.H. og Aagaard, J. (eds.): New Religious Movements in Europe, Århus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 1997
  • Gundelach, Peter, National identitet i en globaliseringstid, Dansk Sociologi, nr. 1, 4, 2001
  • Warburg, Margit; Lüchau, Peter and Andersen, Peter B., Gender, Profession, and Non-Conformal Religiosity, Journal of Contemporary Religion, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 277-290, 1999

Secondary publications

  • Warburg, Margit; Lüchau, Peter and Andersen, Peter B., Gender, Profession, and Non-Conformal Religiosity, Journal of Contemporary Religion, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1999, pp. 277-290, 1999
  • Drejø, Kristine; Mathiasen, Kenneth Skovdall; Mogensen, Jens Hougaard; Møberg, Rasmus Juul, Økologi, en ny værdi?, Aalborg Universitet, 1999, 110 pp. + appendix, 1999