Danish Election Studies, Continuity File 1971-1981

Part of series

Principal Investigator

Ole Borre, Institut for Statskundskab, Aarhus Universitet, Universitetsparken
Hans Jørgen Nielsen, Institut for Statskundskab, Københavns Universitet
Steen Sauerberg, Institut for Statskundskab, Københavns Universitet
Torben Worre, Institut for Historie, Københavns Universitet


Codebook: Variables, universes, concepts, survey design and frequency distribution



See abstract


The survey is a merged version of the recurring questions in a number of election studies. The election studies which form the basis of this survey are seven studies which were carried out in the period 1971-1981. The first two studies are found in DDA-0007: 'Danish Pre- and Post-Election Study 1971', which is a two-wave panel study concerning the general election on 21 September, 1971. The first wave dates from August 1971, before the writs of the election were issued. The second wave dates from October 1971. A subsample of the respondents who were interviewed in these two waves was interviewed again after the general election on 4 December, 1973, and the results of these interviews are found in DDA-0008: 'Danish Election Study 1973', which forms the third wave of the above-mentioned panel study. DDA-0016: 'Danish Election Study 1975' was carried out in connection with the general election on 9 January, 1975. Some of the questions in this study are replications of questions in the 1971 and 1973 studies, but the respondents are not the same. The same applies to DDA-0166: 'Danish Election Study 1977', which was carried out in connection with the general election on 15 February, 1977 and to DDA-0287: 'Danish Election Study 1979', which was carried out in October and November 1979. However, as regards DDA-0287 the data were collected in two omnibuses: one of the omnibus surveys was carried out in October 1979, immediately after the general election on 23 October, whereas the other one was carried out in November. DDA-0529: 'Danish Election Study 1981' was carried out in December 1981, immediately after the general election on 8 December (also with a new survey population). #Thus, 'Danish Election Studies, Continuity File 1971-1981' consists of seven part-studies carried out between August 1971 and December 1981; however, as the 'Danish Election Study 1979' consists of two omnibuses, there are actually eight part-studies. By and large, the variables are recurring variables, i.e. they occur in all the studies, but in a few cases variables have been included which do not occur in all the studies. Furthermore, some variables have been transferred from the Pre-Election Study 1971 to the Post-Election Study 1971 as well as to the 'Danish Election Study 1973', or variables have been transferred from the Post-Election Study 1971 to the Pre-Election Study 1971 (a thing which is possible as the respondents are the same). There are four main groups of variables: #The variables in the first group deal with the respondent's social background, including sex, age, education, marital status, occupational status, designation of occupation, branch of economy, size of place of work, number of children under 15, type of household, income, household income, type of residence, place of residence (geographical region and degree of urbanization), class affiliation, trade union membership, and church attendance. In addition, there are variables dealing with the occupation of the head of household, the housewife and the father (or other bread-winner). #The variables in the second group deal with political interest and election campaign questions, including questions concerning the role of newspapers, radio and TV during the election campaign (as well as variables concerning newspaper reading habits in general). In addition, there are variables concerning discussions within the family, with friends and with colleagues in connection with the election campaign in question, as well as variables concerning the extent to which the respondent has received or has given advice as to which party to vote for. #The variables in the third group deal with party affiliation and party preference, including actual vote at the general elections, voting intention at a hypothetical election on the day after the interview, reason(s) for the vote, time of decision, party identification, government preference and father's party preference. #The variables in the fourth group deal with political attitudes, including the respondent's opinion of what are the most important political problems, attitude to NATO, the EC, nuclear power, economic equality, investment control, tax progression, wage freeze, organizational power, government intervention in connection with collective bargaining, public assistance, censorship, indoctrination, the moral development of society, conformity and orthodoxy, opinion of politicians, and political self-confidence


Nuclear power, Faith in authority, Censoring, General election, Attitude towards EU, Indoctrination, Equality, Wage, Mass media, Moral, NATO, Collective agreement intervention, Party, Party identification, Party membership, Party preferences, Choice of party, Politician, Political discussion, Political interest, Political issue, Preference of government, Self-confidence, Tax, Social position, Social fraud, Vote, Election turnout, Electoral campaign, Economic democracy


Politics: Elections, Politics: Mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion, Society and culture: Social conditions and indicators, Labour and employment: Employment


Age limits,

Geographic Coverage

National, The questionnaires contain a number of open questions.

Data set

Order data

Variables: 118
Analysis unit: Individuals, Citizenship. # #Universe of the individual part-studies: # #Danish Pre- and Post-Election Study 1971: #----------------------------------------- #Danish citizens over 21 (the electoral age). # #Danish Election Study 1973: #--------------------------- #Danish citizens over 23. # #Danish Election Study 1975 and Danish Election Study 1977: #----------------------------------------------------------- #Persons aged 15 or more, living in Denmark. # #Danish Election Study 1979 and Danish Election Study 1981: #----------------------------------------------------------- #Danish citizens aged 15 or more, living in private households. The fact that the universe consists of persons living in private households implies that persons living in collective households, e.g. conscripts, long-stay geriatric patients, and students living in halls of residence, cannot be respondents. At the beginning of 1979 approx. 80,000 persons were excluded from the universe by this criterion, leaving a population of approx. 3,940,000 persons from which to draw the random sample.


In data set: 9296
Original sample: NA


Kind of data: Survey data

Time dimension: ,

Sampling procedure: Other

Action to minimize loos: As regards the Pre- and Post-Election Study 1971 and the Danish Election Study 1973 three re-visits were the prescribed minimum if the respondent was not at home. As regards the Danish Election Study 1975 and the Danish Election Study 1977, the actions taken to minimize losses have not been described whereas the Danish Gallup Institute states that as many re-visits as possible were made within the time limits set for field work as regards the Danish Election Study 1979 and the Danish Election Study 1981. The original data material contains information on which visit resulted in an inteview.

Data collection

Mode of collection: Face-to-face interview

Test type: Structured questionnaire

Number of questions: 116

Data Collector: NA

Temporal coverage

Start: 1971-08-01
End: 1981-12-22


Ole Borre, Hans Jørgen Nielsen, Steen Sauerberg, Torben Worre, Danish Election Studies, Continuity File 1971-1981, Dansk Data Arkiv Danish Data Archive, 1987. 1 data file: DDA-658, version: 1.0.0, http://dx.doi.org/10.5279/DK-SA-DDA-658

Persistent identifier:

DOI: 10.5279/DK-SA-DDA-658

Archive information

Received: 1987-07-01


Study state: The Danish Data Archive has fully documented and preserved the data in a long-term preservation format.
Access conditions: Free access


DDI-L-3.1 XML Study metadata

Latest version: 1.0.0

Other metadata formats

DDA XML Study description


Primary publications

  • Worre, Torben, Vælgernes kryds, Økonomi & Politik, pp. 70-82, 1987
  • Worre, Torben, Dansk vælgeradfærd, København, Akademisk Forlag, 1987
  • Nielsen, Hans Jørgen, Socialdemokratiet og "Arbejdsløsheden". Hvor godt er det at have en god "sag", Samfundsøkonomen Nr. 6, pp. 5-11, 1992

Secondary publications

  • Elklit, Jørgen og Tonsgaard, Ole, Valg og vælgeradfærd. Studier i dansk politik, Politica, 416 pp., 1984
  • Bentzon, Karl-Henrik og Hoff, Jens, Political Attitudes of Public Employees: the Case of Denmark, Paper presented at the ECPR joint workshops, Gothenburg 1986. Institut for Samfundsvidenskab, Københavns Universitet, 1986
  • Togeby, Lise, Fra tilskuere til deltagere. Den kollektive mobilisering af kvinder i Danmark i 1970'erne og 1980'erne, Århus: Politica, 64 pp., 1994